Category: Images

Is this promised end…Or just a foretaste of it?*

* King Lear (V, iii)

It has been a mad dash toward deadlines with many obstacles confronted, and thankfully, most overcome.

Much of the difficulty arose with our efforts to mount the project on the Omeka platform (designed by the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media) in order to use the Neatline plugin (designed by the Scholars Lab at  UVA) to feature interactive historical maps. The maps are especially fundamental to this project. Had we decided upon Omeka early on, we would have had ample time to learn about the platform, select a versatile theme, tinker with it, and present the project in a way that mirrored the depth of information and the web of connections between cemetery occupants and the city. Both platform and plugin are a little tricky for a novice, and Neatline lacks substantial user documentation.

Another stumbling block was the unforeseen complexity of creating a small piece of software that would serve the technical goals of the project: the JSON standard.

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data-interchange format that is relatively simple to generate from a database, and that is excellent for organizing geodata for web-based tools and visualizations.  Although not critical to the visualizations we wanted to create, the software development is a major aspect of the project. Why?

Necropolis is more than a visualization of a cemetery’s history. We wanted it to serve a dual purpose, as both a data management toolbox, and, in the immediate term, a demonstration of what can be done with such data.

With extensive research, and the resources that were made available to us, we created a structured data set (aka a spreadsheet) representing all the records we had. This included both biographical information data on the plot conditions.


A spreadsheet like this, fed into the Necropolis JSON interface, would create a series of files suitable for information management, interactive maps, and other kinds of visualizations.













Taylor worked assiduously to create the JSON tool for Necropolis. Eventually, we plan to make it a handy widget. Because all of us need widgets. Perhaps the dead need widgets most of all.

The Necropolis JSON tool



What counts as a primary source?

We had an instructive experience this past week in our efforts to finish gathering the biographical data we need for this project. So far, we’d been working from primary sources such as manuscript burial registers, typed index cards for every member of the congregation over a 200+ year time span; undated lists in manuscript; 18th-century city directories; transcribed archival documents, journals, letters, notes—including summaries of the same published by the American Jewish Historical Society; and the FamilySearch database, with which we were able to fill in dates and family relationships.

And then there was the innocuous-looking postcard, dated 1950, that lives in the archives of the Center for Jewish History (and lives everywhere digitally).  This short note called into question the accuracy of a large portion of our database. The supposed burial list for the 11th St. cemetery, which we were so excited to discover in those same archives a couple of weeks ago, now appears to pertain to the Chatham Sq. cemetery, which officially closed in 1823.  Although the document is undated, although all the burials occurred before 1823, when the 11th St. cemetery became the congregation’s only burial site, and although none of the names listed were in the burial register under 11th St., we assumed it related to this site. Why? because another source—what could reasonably be considered an authoritative primary source—indicated so.

An entry in Vol. 27 of the Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society (1920) first offered us a tantalizing clue that such a list existed. The following note summarized a document in the Jacques Judah Lyons collection, which is held by the American Jewish Historical Society: “Places of burial in 11th Street. and 21st Street described. Among those buried in 11th Street Cemetery appear: Haim Welcome (1806), Joseph D’Aguilar (1808), and Sarah Soesman (1814).” This description was soon found in a digitized format on the Center for Jewish History’s  website—part of the Jacques Judah Lyons collection.

In addition to brief summaries, this pamphlet contains full reprints and facsimiles of many items in the collection. But does that make it a primary source?

To verify the letter’s claim, I examined an official registry for the Chatham Sq. cemetery, dated 1895—long after the many disinterments there made space for the extension of the Bowery. Checking this against our list, and the index cards that noted places of burial, I was able to corroborate that, indeed, this list was not “our” list.

Yet, there are discrepancies that remain to be solved. A few of the burials noted at 11th St. in the incomplete burial ledger are also on this authoritative registry of Chatham Sq. burials. Which document should we trust—the note card, the 11th St. burial ledger, the Chatham Sq. registry, the undated list? Does the mystery itself reveal something?

These questions remain to be answered.

The moral of this story: the term “primary source” is relative. Also, primary sources can be factually incorrect.

Handwritten postcard, author unknown.
“In the folder in which is the plan of the 21st St. ground the photostated [sic] is also a pencilled list of burials in the Chatham Sq. ground. On the second part of that list, #2 is my mother. This is the grave of Sloe wife of Hayman Levy. The list is therefore compiled by one of the 17 children of Hayman & Sloe Levy. The last one on [?] list is Joshua Isaacs on 17 Feb 1810.” [signature illegible – possibly “ S. P.”( David de la Sola Pool)].  From the digital collections of the Center for Jewish History.


A Fortunate Discovery

While exploring the papers of Jacques Judah Lyons in the American Center for Jewish History‘s archives, I came across some original documents with hand-drawn gravesite maps and burial lists for the Chatham Square and 21st Street cemeteries, created after the exhumation of Chatham Square occupants for street construction and their reinterment at 21st St.

We had seen a printed facsimile of this 21st Street map and list. But the only original burial list we’d seen up until then was a very incomplete register documenting burials at all three sites, which is in the possession of Shearith Israel. Among the original documents in the archives was a list of 27 burials at 11th St., with some mention of grave locations. This could be especially helpful since the condition of the cemetery itself contains few clues as to locations. In addition, by comparing names we were able to confirm that 19 of the burial records in the card catalogue, which had not explicitly indicated a cemetery, did indeed refer to the 11th St. site.

If this list of 11th St. occupants is contemporaneous with the other lists, that would date it to about 1855, when the city seized a portion of the Chatham Square cemetery to extend the Bowery. However, because the burial dates fall between 1805 and 1818, and far more than 27 souls are buried at 11th St., it is highly probable that the list is much older.  By 1818, the cemetery would have been active for about 13 years, and would be active for another 10, until the congregation had to search for a third site further uptown. And from 1805 to 1823, the cemetery served as an “auxiliary” burial ground, until the city banned burials below Canal St. altogether.

Early 19th century manuscript list of 27 burials at the 11th St. cemetery
List of 27 burials at the 11th st. cemetery, from the papers of Jacques Judah Lyons. Collection of the American Jewish Historical Society.

This was by no means a formal registry. Perhaps it was created by a gravedigger, or by the sexton, simply for reference. We hope to discover who created it: a poignant, undated entry in the second column simply states “my mother.”

Row of headstones and footstones against the old (East) back wall.

A Few Photographs of the Second Cemetery

During our site visit, team member Taylor Dietrich documented many of the grave markers. The inscriptions below are taken from a report provided to Shearith Israel by Jablonski Building Conservation, which performed a detailed assessment of the cemetery’s physical condition in the summer of 2015, and includes some information transcribed from the congregation’s burial register by Rachel Frankel.

The Grave of ABRAHAM JUDAH Son of BERNARD & CATHERINE JUDAH died Feb. 26, 1825; aged 14 years 11 months and 7 days.
The Grave of
Abraham Judah
Son of
Bernard S. & Catherine Judah
died Feb. 26, 1825;
aged 14 years 11 months
and 7 days.


In memory of Bernard S. Judah Born June 1776 Died May 1831
In memory of Bernard S. Judah
Born June 1776
Died May 1831
Headstone of Isaac Harby
Sacred to the Memory of Isaac Harby
A Native of Charleston
He Died In The City
on [December 12, 1822]
Aged — years
[Probable] headstone of Hannah Jacobs widow of B. Jacobs. Died August 20, 1825. Heavily weathered Hebrew and English inscription
[Probable] headstone of Hannah Jacobs
widow of B. Jacobs. Died August 20, 1825.
Headstone of Benjamin Jacobs, died 1/31/1824. A steel support frame has been placed around this fragile headstone. Weathered Hebrew and English inscription
… Memory
of Benjamin Jacobs,
who departed this life
on Saturday
the 31 of January 1824
Age__ years
A steel support frame has been placed around this fragile headstone.


Headstone of Rachel S
who departed this life
on the 5th day of August
Aged 49 Years